20. Beat generation
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20. Beat Generation profile: Allen Ginsberg: The Howl state: Jack Kerouac: On the Road Beat movement, also calledBeat Generation(Americansocial and literary movement from 1950s centred in thebohemian artist communities of San Francisco, Los Angeles and Ney York City)they are calling themselves “beat” (originally meaning “weary - unavený,” but later also connoting a musical sense, a “beatific” spirituality, and other meanings)called “beatniks,” expressed their alienation from conventional, or “square,” society by adopting an almost uniform style of seedy dress, manners, and “hip” vocabulary borrowed from jazz musiciansthey were also called beat because they were beaten by society (didn’t feel they fit in, were pushed to the edge of society)it’s shortest lived generation but despite this massively influentialthose writers were usually expelled from the universities because of their poems and literature works.we refer to them as to one of the first youth culturesgenerally apolitical and indifferent to social problemsthey wanted release, purification, and illumination (osvícení) through the drugs, jazz, sex, or the disciplines of Zen Buddhismthey were massively influenced by Jazz and bluesthey fought for more liberal society, freedom of speech, sexual freedom and no censorship they want tobring poetry from academic particularity back to streetsthey read their poetry, sometimes to the accompaniment (doprovod) of progressive jazz (in such Beat strongholds as the Coexistence Bagel Shop and Lawrence Ferlinghetti’s City Lights bookstore in San Francisco)the main representatives wereAllan Ginsberg,Jack Kerouac, Neal Cassady,Ken Kesey andLawrence Ferlinghettithe verse was frequently chaotic and liberally sprinkled with obscenities (nemravnosti) but was sometimes, as in the case of Allen Ginsberg’s Howl (1956), ruggedly powerfulGinsberg and other major figures of the movement, such as the novelist Jack Kerouac, advocated a kind of free, unstructured composition in which thewriter put down his thoughts and feelings without plan or revisionWhen the movement had begun to fade, it had produced a numbers of interesting and promising writers (Ferlinghetti,Gregory Corso,Philip WhalenandGary Snyder)this movement paved (vydlážděný) the way for acceptance of other unorthodox and previously ignored writers (such as Black Mountain, William S. Burroughs) Allan Ginsberg – Howl his poetry is generally rhythmic articulation of feeling (feeling is an impulse that begins inside, like a sexual impulse)it is a feeling that begins in the pit of a stomach and raises up through the breast and out of mouth and earshe is trying to put words to that by looking around and trying to describe what’s making him sight (articulate what he feels)for Ginsberg “there is no such a thing as the beat generation”Howl because of haul of howl of pain (complaining about society)the poem is donated to Carl Solomon, Gisnberg’s friend from the mental hospitalHowl is divided into 4 parts (for each part is characteristic one word)WHOMOLOCHHOLYROCKLANDthese words are in the particular parts of the poem repeated again and againit’s an example ofanaphorawe can find there, examples ofpersonification as well – when something that isn’t human is given human attributes (“I saw the best mind of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked ... – minds are starving!”).form (very long divided in 4 parts),diction (language which he is using is confusing),fluidity,clarity (not everybody understands)WHO – who refers to the Beats, to the young people who are different from othersMOLOCH – is the biblical name of a god associated with child sacrifice, to sacrifice himself he has to eat a children (Ginsberg compares a society to Moloch)ROCKLAND – represents the psychiatric hospital where have been with Solomon in 1949howl shows madness to be a kind of elevated state (zvýšený stav) filled with hallucinations and visionsBut it can simply be terrifying, as when Carl Solomon thinks he is losing„the game of the pingpong of the abyss“the poem contains lots of historical references to psychiatric hospitals that seem straight out of theJack Nicholson movieOne Flew Over the Cuckoo´s Nest (based on a book written by Ginsberg´s friend Ken Kesey): lobotomies, shock therapy, angry nurses, and morethere are also a lot of geographical references:NYC,San Francisco,Kansas,Colorado,Battery Park,Bellevue (mental asylum)there is a lot of sex in this poemno widely distributed American poem has such geographic descriptions of sexuality before Howl, which was originally declared obscene by the US governmentGinsberg wrote Howl after a long struggle to come to grips with his identity as a gay man Luther Nichols:„It´s a howl of pain. Figuratively speaking his toes have been stepped on. He´s poetically putting his cry of pain and protest into this book Howl. He´s employing the jazz phraseology here. I think he´s also employing the words he heard in his life on the road and in his various experiences. I think I understand the general significance of the words and the general context. I would say he was attempting to show the lack of inhibition in the persons he´s talking …the post WW2 generation…those who returned, went into college or went into work immediately after WW2, perhaps were somewhat displaced by the chaos of the war and didn´t immediately settle down.” on June, the bookstore manager, was arrested and jailed for selling Howl and Other Poems to an undercover San Francisco police officercity Lights PublisherLawrence Ferlinghetti was subsequently arrested for publishing the bookat the obscenity trial, nine literary experts testified on the poem's behalfsupported by theAmerican Civil Liberties Union, Ferlinghetti won the case when California State Superior Court Judge decided that the poem was of "redeeming social importance"this event made Howl even more famous and bring wider readershipthis was also a key event in the American history of Literature because it set