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24)Global problems First of whole I would like to say what globalisation is. Globalisation is a process of integration connected with social changes and sharing of political and economical events between countries. It means better cooperation between states in environmental issues, travelling(transport is becoming very easy), sharing information, business(we can buy products which were made in faraway places, there are no boundaries), manufacturies, finance(bad policy of American banks influenced the whole world; the crisis started), sport, culture (fast spread, influence) and many more. The process of globalization is connected with the problem of developed and developing countries. The world is kind of divided. In the North there are mostly richer, developed countries. On the other hand in the South there are countries of the second or third world, which are poor, there is famine, poverty, illiteracy, many diseases, such as AIDS and many others. The North tries to help South, they try to provide education there, ensure electricity and fresh water, send doctors there, they also establish many charity organizations and a lot of people and celebrities adopt children, who don´t have parents, from these poor countries. However, foreign investors often misuse these people, because they can use them as a cheap labour. They also might not follow the production rules as they would have to in their countries. Now, I’m going to talk about global problems. Global problems are those problems that concern the whole world; they affect the entire Earth and are connected with modern civilization. It’s really important to take care of them, watch the progress and do some research, because global problems can cause serious accidents, for example natural disasters, and they can also have many consequences. Some of the global issues that are discussed lately are the global warming, air and water pollution, depletion of the ozone layer or habitat destruction and species extinction. The most discussed and the most controversial global problem is global warming. This process is caused by the greenhouse effect. This means that the hot sun rays come through the atmosphere to the Earth, they bounce back from the ground, but they can’t go back to space, because they can’t go through the layer of carbon dioxide. So the heat stays here and Earth’s temperature is getting higher. The cause of the greenhouse effect is actually the production of carbon dioxide. CO2 is produced mainly by factories, cars and by burning fossil fuels, for example coal. This is also connected with the other problem – deforestation of the Earth. People cut down the trees and mainly rain forests for wood and paper, but deforestation actually helps the global warming – the trees produce oxygen and thanks tophotosynthesis they wouldconsume the carbon dioxide. But since more forests are being cut down, less CO2 can be absorbed and also many animal species which live in these areas are in danger of extinction. Scientists predict that the rising temperature of the Earth will cause the melting of glaciers in Antarctica and Arctic. The sea levels will rise, completely flooding many islands, a large part of the Netherlands and many coastal cities such as NY or Miami. People who are now living in these areas will have to move inland, many species will be eradicated. The solution is that we have to lower the production of carbon dioxide immediately, try to reduce our carbon footprint(measure of all greenhouse gases we individually produce) we should for example start to recycle, separate plastic and paper and try to behave more ecologically. Now, it’s trendy to be ecological and to recycle the waste. There are 3 main containers - blue for paper, green for glass and yellow for plastic - almost everywhere. I think it’s useful, because the waste can be recycled and used again. The next global problem is air pollution. It’s also connected with the global warming, mainly with the carbon dioxide production, but the air is polluted also by other dangerous gases and chemicals. Cars and heavy industry exhaust gases contributing to smog and acid rains. Acid rains are caused by a combination of nitrogen mixture and sulfur dioxide with water in the atmosphere. They damage the nature, poison the lake water and make fish die. They also destroy the trees and plants. Another global problem, also very closely connected with the global warming, is the problem of the depletion of the ozone layer. The ozone layer, composed of O3 molecules, is being damaged by freons. This is very serious, because the ozone layer absorbs the dangerous ultraviolet light from the sun, this protects our skin and eyes. But when there is an ozone hole, the ultraviolet rays come to the Earth and it can damage our health. I think this was the global problem of the last decade, because the cause – freon – was found and it isn’t allowed to be produced anymore. Another global problem, also very closely connected with global warming and climate changes, are natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, fires, volcanic eruptions or droughts. Natural disasters usually have many casualties and cause famine, poverty, homelessness and violence. Global problems aren’t only environmental, but also social. Some of the current social problems are, for example, racism, terrorism, unemployment, mutated viruses and diseases, drugs, illiteracy or violence against women. I think that globalization is mostly a positive process. We can use recent events in Japan as an example. The local earthquakes and tsunamis have had the global effect. Because of a damaged nuclear power plant, radiation spread into other countries but thanks to the international sharing information, people could protect themselves. It is also going to have a long lasting effect on the world’s economy because Japan was one of the biggest powers and a lot of products, for example computer components, were made there. But ma