24. Nature and environmental protection
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24. Nature and environmental protection We could say that the environment is everything what is around us. It includes plants, animals, air, water, our civilization etc. Environment is influenced by processes in nature, but mainly by activity of people. However, humans do not always care for the environment as they should. People tend to prefer their own convenience and luxury over healthy natural environment. People want more cars, bigger houses, the latest computer technology, and packaged foods, etc. to make their life more comfortable. All of this growth pollutes nature and the environment. We can divide pollution into three categories: Air pollution, Soil pollution, Water pollution. Destroying the environment is a result of mankind´s activity. The air pollution is caused by the industry, rivers and soils may be polluted by factories that release their waste waters into river streams. Air pollution is the biggest problem in large cities and in areas with concentrated industrial production. Acid rains are caused by the air pollution. Gases in the air mix with water steam in the atmosphere and create acid which rains down to Earth and pollutes water, soil and green plants. To solve problem of air pollution, people should try to use alternative sources of energy, such as solar, water, wind energies. People should use public transportation, railways, bicycle or they should go on foot more. New cars should run on unleaded petrol. Factories and power stations should have effective filters and households should use natural gaz. Floods are generally caused by long heavy rains or when a lot of snow melt in the spring and water run down from mountains. This water flood towns, roads and their surroundings. The floods damage houses, bridges, roads and kill people and animals who don´t run away. In dry and hot seasons, there can be a lot of fires. Hurricanes and tornadoes are caused by pressure changes in the atmosphere. We can meet with this phenomenon often in area of Caribbean Sea. It´s very strong wind destroying everything on the way. The movement of the lithospheric boards caused earthquakes and explosions of volcanoes. During the earthquake, the land is crashing and shaking. Buildings fall down and everybody is in danger. Earthquake under the ocean can cause a big tidal wave which floods the coast. On the other hand, the volcanoes produce a lot of dust, smoke and lava which pours out and burns everything what is in the land´s surface. A big danger in nowadays is destruction of rain forests for a building materials. Trees are very important for us, because they produce oxygen for breathing. Global warming is caused by the greenhouse effect. Then the Earth´s temperature rises, arctic ice melts and areas near the sea level floods. Water is polluted by households, industrial processes, by pesticides and other chemicals used in agriculture, by waste and ships (mainly by tankers which crashed and oil run out). We should find technologies for saving water, reduce chemical fertilizers, controlled industrial processes. Ozone layer is destroyed by Freon’s. The biggest ozone hole has formed over Antarctica and Australia. Many ecological organizations take care about our nature, but everyone can do something for our environment. For example, we can sort waste, recycled, use glass bottles, make our surrounding clean, save energy f. e. turn the TV off when we leave a room, we should stop water when we brush our teeth.