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4. Key moments in british history

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4. Key Moments in British History Profile:The Tudors, The Civil War State:The Early Settlements, The Middle Ages (to 1485) The early history the first people to inhabit the British Isles were settlers from Europethey arrived between 3,500 and 3,000 B.C and introduced farming, potery and stone toolsthey lived in the south of England Stonehenge was built by these early inhabitants Stonehenge the largest prehistoric monument, a huge circle of standing stones on Salisbury Plainvisitors from all over the world come here and wonder at how these huge stones were transported and erected over 3000 years ago THE CELTS as the first inhabitants are considered theCelts who invaded British Isles between the 6th and the 3rd century BCsetlled in southern Englandthey originaly came from Europebetween 500 and 250 BC they were the most powerful people north of the Alpswere pagans, but later converted to christianity and spread the chrisitianity across British Isleswere good artists (sophisticated disign) THE ROMANS in AD 43 Romans invaded the southern Britain which became Roamn colony called Britanniathey went from Italy and pushed the Celts to the northRoomans set up the capital in London and built cities such as Chester or Yorkthey built infrastructure such as roads, sawage, canals, public bathsthe Celtic tribes in Scotland never surrended to the Romansin AD 122 Roman emperor Hadrian built Hadrian Wall on the border with ScotlandRomans started to leave Britain in AD 340 to fight on the continent the first roman invasion was led by Julius Caesar in 55 B.C., but Britain wasn´t conqueredlater was conquered under Emperor Claudius n 43 A.D.he pushed (vytlačit) a lot of Celts who lived there to the north and west, Celts didn´t like it and that´s why attacked the Romans many timesRoman Emperor Hadrian wanted to stop them> built a long wall to defend (chránit) the border between England and ScotlandRoman occupation of Britain lasted nearly 400 years, it´s effects were few, the people didn´t adopt Latin language THE SAXONS, JUTES AND ANGLES from 350 Gemanic tribes started invading Britainthe trabes came from German, Denmark, Notherlandsthe Angels gave Englad its namethe native people and a few Romans lagions could not stop the new enemy, known as Anglo-saxons and fled to the northAnglo-saxons were converted to christianity following the arrival of Saint Augustine of Rome in 597as christianity spread monasteries were built all over England Christianity in 597 St. Augustin landed in Kent and brought Christianity to Englandhe became the first Archbishop of Canterbury THE VIKINGS about 790 vikings started to invade British Islesthey settled mainly in Ireland and Scotlandthey were excelent traders and navigators – traded silk and fursin1066 King Harold II marched north to defeat his half-brother the King of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Few weeks later was killed at the Battle of Hastingson by other invader. Wiliam Duke of Normandy from nothern france, later known as Wiliam of Conqueror. THE NORMANS Wiliam of Conqueror established a new Anglo – Norman stateEngland became under military rulecastles appeared all over the England to enforce the norman rulethe new language Norman-French gave a birth to middle English and had a lasting effect on EnglishWiliam wrote Domesday book = the list of economic survey and livestockcountry was strictly organised according to the FEUDAL SYSTEMHenry II became king in 1162. Thomas Becket was named Arcibishop of Canterbury.in 1170 Becket was murdered at catedral and became martyrCanterbury Tales (Geoffrey Chaucer) THE MIDDLE AGES middle ages were full of conflicts and battlesHenry II – Richard I (nicknamed the Lionheart) – John the Lackland1215 Magna Carta was writtenLimited power of kingShowed that feudalism began to declinePart of unwritten constitucion (which is actually written in many documents: Magna Carta, Bill of Rights, “tradition”)Quaranteed the rights of freemanQuaranteed the freedom of churchBlack death (plaque) killed about one fifth of the British population The Hundred years war (1337 – 1457) England lost everything in France apart from Calaisit was war with France, Edward III wanted to be the King of France but the French King wouldn´t agree to this and so began the warthe war ended in England´s defeat War of roses conflict between Yorks and Lancestersfinished in 1485 by Battle of Bosworth fieldHenry Tudor became king and started the reign of Tudorsa dynastic struggle for the possession of the Crown between the House of York and the House of Lancaster, whose emblems were a white and red rosetwo powerful branches of the Royal Family for 30 years carried on civil war in order to secure the throne for themselvespeace was made when Henry VII of Lancaster married Elizabeth of York THE TUDORS (1485 – 1603) Henry Tudor ashered the new era of prosperity and stability, he laid foundations for one of the most fruitful periods in English historyhis sonHenry VIII was a brilliant scholar and ambitious politic. He quickly dissipated money and was always looking for a quick way how to raise money. After his first wife failed to give birth to his male heir he wanted to divorce. He persuaded English bishops to make him head of the Anglican church (Act of Supermacy 1534). Thanks to this he had access to properties of Anglican church and did the Dissolution of the Monasteries (1536-39). Henry died in 1547 and left three heirs: Edward, Mary and Elizabeth Tudor.Edwardwas too young to rule so the country was governed by a council untill Edward died at the age of 16 andMary (Bloody Mary) became queen.by this time religion tension reached the peak and Mary burned hundreds of protestants at the stake. Mary died in 1588 and was succeeded by Elizabeth I.Elizabeth I was force for peace, reconciliation and prosperity. Elizabeth encouraged colonies abroad. The area of Virginia was named after her (was known as the Virgin queen since she never married).also the slave trade began and Bristol

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