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4. London London is capital city of the England, The United Kingdom and Great Britain. It lies on the river Thames in the south-east of England. It is the most populous city in the UK and the population is over 8 million inhabitants. It is a cosmopolitan city, so it means that people of many nationalities live there. It was founded by the Roman w ho named it Londinium. The town was surrounded by a wall because of defence. The area within the walls is now called the City of London. It consists of the City of London and 32 boroughs. The part of London located to the west of the City is called the West End and it is centre of entertainment. London is one of the most visited cities in the world. It is centre of culture, art, education, health care, entertainment, business, commerce, fashion, … London is the seat of the Monarch, the Parliament, the Government and the Supreme Court. London has an excellent transportation system to get you where you need to go. The London Underground is called tube and it is the oldest one because it was the first underground in the world. The city’s bus line is known for its famous red double-decker buses. If you sit on the top deck, you will get a nice view of the sights on your journey. You can also go by black taxis called cabs. There are 3 very important airports and they are called Heathrow, Stansted and Gatwick. The White Tower built by William the Conqueror. In the past the Tower used to be a royal residence, a fortress, a prison and an execution place. Today, the Tower is a museum of historical weapons and Crown Jewels. The guards of the Tower are called Beefeaters. We can also find ravens there. They are there for centuries. According the legend, they guard the Tower and if they leave the Tower the Kingdom would fall apart so that’s why the ravens’ wings are cut short. London’s beautiful parks cover almost one third of the city and once were defined as the lungs of London. Hyde Park is the largest one, mainly famous for its Speaker’s Corner. Here, people, often standing on chairs or boxes, could make speeches on anything they wanted. It opens in the middle and goes up when huge ships want to pass through. It is named after the Tower of London that stands next to it. The Houses of Parliament are officially called the Palace of Westminster. It has two main towers. Clock Tower, called Big Ben, and Victoria Tower, where flies the union jack whenever Parliament is sitting The Changing of the Guards takes place in front of the Palace every day. Thousands of tourists watching it. London Eye is the largest observation wheel in the world, it turns very slow and one turn takes about 30 minutes. It has a big glasses windows and from the top you can see whole London. It is 150 meters high. It was built to celebrate the new millennium in January 2000. Downing Street No. 10 has been the home of British Prime Ministers since 18th century. We can find Madame Tussaud’s there. It is wax museum. It was set up by wax sculptor Marie Tussaud. There are singers, actors, members of royal family, presidents and more made up of wax. One of the main attractions of her museum was the Chamber of Horrors with some victims of the French Revolution and figures of murderers and other criminals. Piccadilly Circus is famous traffic intersection and popular meeting place of London’s West End. In the middle of the circle there is the statue of Eros which represents Angel of Charity. There are many London theatres, cinemas, restaurants and shops near Piccadilly Circus. Trafalgar Square is a large square in Central London. It commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar. In the centre of the square there is the site of Nelson’s Column. The National Gallery is situated at the top of the square. Shakespeare’s Globe is theatre from end of 16th century. It is only copy because the original was destroyed by fire. It was rebuilt in 17th century and it looks exactly the same as the original. Belfast is museum on a ship on the river Thames from the second world war. It is called Her Majesty Shipp in honour of queen. St. Paul’s cathedral is the largest cathedral in England. The cathedral’s dome is the second largest in the world. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of London. It was built by the architect Sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire.