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5. EIRE - IRELAND -5th century BC – distinctive civilization – Celtic culture, arrival of Celts who spoke Gaelic -1st century BC – Gaellic language - becomes written in 5th century AD -Christianity – Latin alphabet and literacy, people reading, writing -5-8th century – highly developed –Golden age in Irish culture - Bible and latin alphabet spread – Gaelic became a written language before English became even spoken -monasticculture = monasteries like universities,beer – important, proteins, water was not drinkable, basic astrology, histories are written, development of language,culture based about monasteries as places for learning -St Patrick – legend of saint Patrick, was sent to brought Christianity to Ireland, explained it to them – mythologized - Irish needed to create this identity because of English domination English saw Irish wild and uncivilized - explained the Holy trinity -Shamrock – he explained on this the holy trinity - green –Emerald isle - national identity under threat because of the British -Vikings – 9th century, Dublin – settlement – discovered - most of the monasteries are destroyed,burned -12th century – 1160s/70s British kings to help -Normaninversion –1066, William the Conquer – cultural nomination - come to Ireland, gaining control, in England they replaced existed culture with French speaking Norman aristocracy - in Ireland over generations become gallic speakers – they become new part of aristocracy - Old English - war of the Roses – House of Lancaster – red rose, House of York – white rose - Dublin – under English control, area around Dublin –Pale = defensive fence structure protective barrier –Be beyond the pale- uncivilized - lord of Ireland has very little Ireland -Henry VIII. – English church – making himself the king of Ireland – direct English control His issues: 1. he wanted a son to provide stability even after his death -succession 2. 1st wife Aragon – Spanish royal family – vliv v Evropě, can’t give him a son – pope did not give him a divorce – wont help him →split from catholic church – not about ideological belief 3. Why this are bad news for Ireland? Henry VIII. is lord of Ireland, pope can easily take Henry VIII. Out, take his illegitimacy, weak spot, it is good for him politically to make himself king, direct ruler, has to re-establish military power - Irish lords find themselves under control of English -Edward, Mary, Elizabeth – problem with Irish with being rebellious, take their land -James I. – 1603 united the kingdoms ofScotland, England and Catholic Ireland - in of 16th century – process ofplantation – a)protestant – pro Britain,unionist, believe in union between England and Ireland, extreme group – loyalists – u are prepared to fight and kill b)catholic – independent Ireland,nationalist, extreme group – republican - plantation of protestant 17th century – loyalist, unionist, English speaking protestants – loyal to English speaking king –organized colonization - plantation –protest minority implanted in Ireland, Belfast, groups of people –sectarianism - hard plantation – taking away, killed, replaced by protestant - soft – English kings buy land -1642-1651Civil war – innocent protestant, Cromwell set peace, directly kill residents of New Castle, late 1640s, half population of Ireland die indirectly,first genocide by English, replacement of English monarchy with republic under the rule ofOliverCromwell - Irish are difficult to control - England – protestant, Ireland – catholic - religion dividing the island in groups - hatred between groups –sectarianism = discrimination - English civil war – catholic rise up,Cromwell – control of English state, Civil war 1640s - burn the harvest - getting rid of man in Ireland – taking to America, forced toindentured servitude(contract, men and women agreed to work certain amount of hours, then they are free) - accelerate in times of James I. – king of Scotland, Scottish people emigrating -1688Glorious revolution – anti catholic revolution - James I. and William of Orange – decisive protestant victory (rozhodující) - various anticatholic laws – pretty extreme in Ireland, u can be catholic but not openly, you are not allowed to by any part of the state, own land - if u do own land, you are protestant - west of the country –tenant farmers, small land, poor quality, not manage well (nájemní) -potato – catholic who try to rebel are persecuted - Irish diaspore – 20 milion -1844-1850 Irish potato famine – cruel, 1 mil. death, 1 mil. emigrants, Potato Blight – disease, Irish were relied on potatoes - Gaelic starts to run out, it is banned in school - explosion in Irish culture/literature -Mythology – Irish identity, Celtic identity, Irish people were afraid of losing their culture so they sought the old stories and mythology - socialist and nationalist 1916 – nationalist take part of Dublin -1919-1921Irish war of independence – compromise – effectively partition of Ireland, North – slight protestant majority, led toNorthern IrelandandRepublic of Ireland -Ireland refused to fight in WW II. – uprising of the Catholic – partition -Easter uprising – origin of IRA, they wanted to gain independence from United Kingdom -1916 -Belfast – shipyards, industrial area, greater control of North Atlantic – why politically and strategically is NI good for English -IRA –catholicnationalist, belief thatall of Ireland should be an independentrepublic free from British rule - one group wanted fights to continue, other group wanted compromise, problem with democracy, British will always vote to be British, protestant majority in NI -Sinn Féin – left wing Irish republican political party, nacionalists -Gerrymandering = a practice intended to establish anunfairpoliticaladvantage for a particular party -1 NP (political repressent.) for each area,Derry (London Derry) – city in NI, catholic majority, but catholic don’t have any NPs, no political representation, discrimination in terms of housing, better jobs are given to protestant, ca