7. World problems in the 21st century
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7. World problems in the 21st century Global problems are the problems concerning the entire world. These problems are for example: criminality, wars, terrorism, pollution increase, diseases, drugs, environmental problems and many others. - SOCIAL PROBLEMS - Social problems are mainly in highly developed countries and poor countries. POVERTY It’s connected with globalization and also with population increase. Workers in developing countries live in poverty but the companies in the West get richer. The solving of this problem is fair trade. Fair means that the buyer pays a price that gives the producer enough money to live. Trade means buying and selling products between countries. In Britain is one organization called Tradecraft, which is trying to keep the fair trade. 2 billion people suffer from famine and every year many people die of hunger. TERRORISM Terrorism is the great scare of the world, mostly in capital cities. It has its roots in Russia. Situation has changed after the 11th September 2001 when Al-Qaeda at the head with Osama bin Laden attacked the USA. Both buildings of the World Trade Center in New York crashed after two aircraft hit into them. From this attack became also the fear of anthrax. HOMELESSNES This problem can be connected with drugs, alcoholism and unemployment. These people live under the bridges or sleep in the train station. They are dressed in poor dirty clothes. It is dangerous to be homeless because of illnesses and death from the cold. They don’t have money so they beg for money on the streets very often. Fortunately there are some churches and organizations that take care about them (shelters). This problem became very serious in America. There are as many as 3 million homeless people in US today. RACISMSome people, racists, see themselves as a superior race and discriminate or attack the one, which they consider worse. One example of racism is called apartheid. It’s in South Africa and meant general discrimination of black South Africans. UNEMPLOYMENTIt usually appears in less developed areas of the country or where a large factory closed down. The least unemployment is in large cities where the companies always need employees. But they usually search for someone with higher level of education and specialization. However, each country has special programs for unemployed people to help them. DISEASESThere are many diseases that trouble us all over the world. Diseases are a big problem mainly in developing countries because there are not as good and available health services as in developed countries. Diseases can we contract from other people ( aids ), own body develops it itself ( cancer ) or some diseases are hereditary. But there are many really dangerous diseases ( Leprosy, TBC, Malaria and Cholera ). Most of them can be curable but some of them not. Very important is to bring information to people about the danger of these illnesses. BIRD FLUIt’s contagious illness, which infects mainly birds. This illness affects bird’s organs and then after 48 hours birds die. The flu is transmitted by bird’s spits and excrements. It can infect also people. The first case of the bird flu was reported in Italy. In the 27th of March the bird flu was reported in the Czech Republic. The symptoms of influenza are: temperature, cough, and headache. CRIME AND CRIMINALITYNowadays, criminality is very high and still increases. It can be caused by many reasons. Main reason is money. Crime is criminal action which is prohibited by the law. As a light crime we can consider stealing and hard crime is murder. Crime is usually connected with drugs and prostitution. If someone is guilty he is sent to prison. DRUGS Drugs are one of the most serious problems of today’s world. People try drugs because they have problems or mean their life boring. Drugs are divided into these categories: soft drugs ( marijuana, hash, mushrooms ); hard drugs ( ecstasy, cocaine, opium, and heroin ); legal drugs ( alcohol, tobacco and medicines ). All three types can cause addiction, illness or even death. Some symptoms are red eyes, affect thinking, slow movements, rapid heartbeat, droopy eyelids and small pupils. Some results of using are panic, anxiety and toxic psychosis. - ENVIROMENTAL PROBLEMS - Civilisation has brought people many advantages but its products also pollute and damage the environment in which we live. Pollution affects air, water, land, forests, people, animals and plants. AIR POLLUTIONIt’s the biggest problem in large cities and in areas with concentrated industrial production. Emissions include smoke, dust and smells from car. Smoke contains sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide which are produce by coal-fired power stations and industrial plants burning fossil fuels. These substances mix with water from clouds in the atmosphere and form “acid rains” which fall into trees and kill life in them. Trees are important for our lives because they absorb carbon dioxide from the air and produce oxygen. In some parts of the world the great rain forests are destroyed for firewood and building materials. GREENHOUSE EFFECT The Earth is warmed up by the atmosphere which traps solar radiation. But carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, chlorofluorocarbons, methane and water vapour stop the heat from escaping. The result is a rise in the Earth’s temperature, the melting of arctic ice and the flooding of land. 30 km over the surface is the ozone layer, which absorbs ultraviolet radiation, which causes skin cancer. The ozone layer is damaged by chlorofluorocarbons and a large hole has formed over Antarctica. To slow greenhouse effect down we must plant more trees because trees absorb carbon dioxide and we must use alternative sources of energy. WATER POLLUTIONWater pollution results from harmful industrial processes and households, from fertilizers used in agriculture, from waste sites and from ships ( from tankers which cause ocean pollution ). Nitrate can pollute inland waters by leachi