Australia, New Zealand
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14 Australia and New Zealand a) AUSTRALIA It's an official name isthe Commonwealth of Australia towards the end of 19 century the people desired the federation that resulted in the formation of a new BRITISH DOMINION known as the COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA in 1901, which belongs to the BRITISH COMMONWEALTH of nations. It is a federal state with aGovernor General at its head who is a deputy to the British Queen. But the actual head of the executive is AustralianPrime minister. Australia is an insular continent. Australia lies on the Southeast course from Asia. It covers an area of about 7 700 000 sq. kilometres. Its population is only of 18 million. Australia is an as large as continental USA, but large territories are difficult to live in: there are little rain and some areas are completely dry. Most people live on the south-east coast. Canberrais the capital with a population 300 000. Other meaningful cities areSydney,Melbourne, Brisbane andPerth. The whole territory of Australia is divided into five states and two continental and some insular territories. The States are:Queensland (position: north-east, capital: Brisbane),New South Wales (south-east, Sydney),Victoria (south-east, Melbourne),Western Australia (west, Perth), South Australia (south, Adelaide) and insular stateTasmania (south of Victoria, Hobart). The continental territories are:Northern Territory (northern and central Australia, Darwin),Canberra(= Australian capital territory in South New Wales) The Eastern Shore of Australia is scoured by the Indian Ocean and the west shore by the by the Pacific. This continent is the least mountains and the driest in the whole word. The deserts cover one third of the surface of Australia. The climate at various places is different and it changes according to the altitude. The coldest weather is in the mountains, in the south-east and in Tasmania. It regularly snows at these places. The whether in the North is hot because it is near to equator. The warmest period of the year is in January and February. In the central and in the western part of Australia there are long periods of dry weather. Sometimes there are floods and typhoons on the north-west and east coats. The longest river is theMurray-Darling (=tributary). Its lengthy is 3780 kilometres the most rivers are small that dry up because there is not enough rain. The highest mountain isMount Kasciusco. Its height is 2230m. It lies in the Australia Alps (in the East). The lowest point isLake Eyre (-16m). The typical trees areeucalyptus trees andthornbushes. Also typical are varied birds and many kinds of poisonous reptiles and spiders. There are no beast of prey there. Agriculture is also very important. Wheat, barley and suggar-cane are the most important products. We can find there various kinds of fruit, vegetable, vine, tobacco, cotton, rice and leguminous plants. More important that plants is animal production. About one third of the continent is reserved for sheep breeding. In Australia is the biggest number of sheep and biggest production of wool in the world. There are also large forests there. In Australia are found deposits of iron, bauxite, lead, zinc, gold, silver, gas, uranium etc. Australia is a very important exporter of raw materials. The biggest industrial centres are in Sydney and Melbourne that lie in the New South Wales. New South Wales is the principal producer of minerals. THE PEOPLE The majority of Australia are of European origin (especially of British origin). About 1,5 percent of all people living there are the aboriginal inhabitants. The majority of the people live in the cities on the coast. Obligatory school attendance is to up the age of 15 (in Tasmania up to 16). The basic and secondary schools are free of charge. The official language is English and the unit of currency is one Australia dollar ($A). The religion is mostly Christianity. THE HISTORY OF COLONISATION The first immigrants were the Australian black people who came there from south-east Asia 40 000 years ago. In March 1606 the first European - a Spanish captain came there, followed then by Dutch navigators. In 1770 the British seafarer James Cook began to explore the continent but actual colonisation started 18 years later when a fleet of ships brought the first settlers and convicts from Europe. The first colony was called New South Wales. It was a penal colony first. Gold was discovered there in 1851-1852. This brought about another influx of immigrants. b) NEW ZEALAND New Zealand is an insular state in the south-western part of the Pacific. It is about 1600 kilometres south-east of Australia. It covers an area of about 250 00 sq. kilometres. It has also some small territories in the Pacific (e.g. Tokelau, Cook Islands etc.). N.Z. is larger than GB but the density of the population is very low. Its population is about 3,5 million. About 90 percent of the inhabitants are of European origin. The rest are mostly Maoris. N.Z. consist of two islands:North Island andSouth Island. Cook Channel separates both islands. The capital isWellington. The Queen of England has been the head of N.Z. since 1952. Wellington, the capital, lies on North Island. The biggest city isAuckland situated in the North of North Island. The surface of the whole island is rather mountainous. The only plain region is in the East of the island. There are several hot springs volcanoes in North Island. Two of them are continually active. In South Island there are lot of lakes of glacial arraigns and in the North Island there are a lot of lakes of volcanic origin. The largest lake isTaupo the area of which is 606 sq. km. We can find Taupo in North Island. The longest river is theWaitkato and it flows out of Taupo. Many rivers are short and torrential. The biggest mountains areMount Cook 3764m high (South Island) andRuapehu 2700 m high (North Island). The climate is mild with periods of rains (called the rains). The summers are warm with long sunshine and the winters are mild esp