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FROM THE HISTORY OF THE USA The first attempt to settle the America was in about 40 000 BC. People came to Northern America from Asia across the land bridge. They migrated in several waves. The last wave was approximately in 10 000 BC, then the land bridge disappeared. There were many recognisable differences between migrating tribes. They for example looked slightly different, because they came from several different locations. This theory is the major one and only one that is accepted. Other theories are for example that the first settlers came form Egypt or Atlantis. But these are not accepted. Native Americans (Indigenous people or Indians) lived in tribes (500 recognised) all around the America. I’d like to mention for example Makhas - tribe that lived in the Northwest Coast. They used canoes (or dugoutsmade from a hollowed tree trunk) to hunt the whales to get meat, fat and tendons. From tendons they made ropes. Sioux tribe lived in the Great Plains. Sioux means little snakes. Typical for them are high cheekbones, big nose and black hair. Sitting Bull comes from this tribe. It is important to mention that each tribe looked and lived differently. Some of them were farmers and gatherers and some were hunters. They lived for example in teepees or wigwams – it depended on their lifestyle. Nomadic Indians migrated a lot, so they lived in teepees which were easy to carry. Inuit (singular – Inuk) lived in northern part (for example Alaska). They were mostly hunters (fishing). They believed that spirits of their ancestors could be seen in the aurora. Also, totems were typical for them. The first discovery of America happened approximately in 1000 AC. It was Vikings, but they failed to settle down permanently. In 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered the new land, while thinking he arrived in India. That’s why native Americans are called Indians. It happened because of navigation error. The era of colonisation began. The first English colony (1607) was Jamestown in Virginia (to honour the Queen Elizabeth I). The French, Spanish, Dutch conquerors were also trying to colonise America. Small settlements in Florida and the SW were under the Spanish rule. French owned colonies along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast. Spanish colonies were located mostly in Central and South America. In 1620 the English boat “Mayflower” with puritans on board arrived to Plymouth, New England. Puritans called themselves the Pilgrim Fathers. Their first winter was though. In spring they started to learn from Natives and managed to survive. October 1621 – that’s when they celebrated good harvest and the Thanksgiving became American tradition. The negative side of colonisation was slavery. England was becoming afraid of the growing power of colonies. They started to charge new taxes on sugar, textile etc. Colonists refused it and England had to send soldiers to handle the situation. In 1773 event called Boston tea party happened. Colonists boycotted British trade. Dressed like Indians they threw a cargo of British tea into the Boston Harbor. The relationship was getting worse and the War of Independence broke out in 1775 (Battle of Lexington). At the front of the revolt were G. Washington and T. Jefferson. On the 4th of July in 1776 the Declaration of Independence was written. Main author is T. Jefferson. Americans declared themselves free from British rule and explained that all men are created equal and have natural right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. The whole war lasted until the 1783, when colonists won, and Britain signed peace. The 13 colonies became the USA. The Constitution was finished 5 years later and became the highest law. First president was George Washington. In 19th century population grew, and territory was expanded. Removal of Natives started in 1830. T. Jefferson believed that they should be civilised, converted to Christianity and turned to farmers. Also, gold was found in Indian’s territories. Natives were forced to leave their homes, give up their names. The Trail of Tears is an event when they carried about 90 000 Indians to the East. Many of them died on the road. Conflicts between the North and the South were becoming more and more serious. North was industrial, and South was agricultural. Big problem was slavery. North wanted to abolish it, but South’s economy was based on plantations where many slaves worked. Southern colonies also disagreed with Abraham Lincoln becoming the president. Civil War broke out in 1861. Southern lands wanted to leave the union even more after Lincoln guaranteed freedom to all slaves in 1863.During war the Southern Army (Confederates) won some battles. But the key battle in1865 decided. Union (North’s) Forces won. Conflict had many results – slavery was abolished, and USA became strong, united nation. After the Civil War industrial growth started. America was the most powerful country and had big profits from coal mining, manufacturing, railways etc. The USA entered the WWI in 1917. President was Woodrow Wilson at that time. The USA was on the winners’ side with France and England against Germany. Huge economical growth was recognisable in the “Roaring Twenties”. However, in 1929 there was a stock market crash (Wall Street Crash or Black Friday). Era of Great Depression started. Unemployment and poverty were becoming worse and worse. USA also participated in the WWII. Also on the side of the Allies. Current president Harry Truman ordered to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1941, after Japan attack on Pearl Harbour. The Cold War started in 1950s and lasted until the 1990s. Mistrust between USSR and USA increased. It was a race to conquer the space, have the best military technique and so on. Simply the main idea was to show the other country that we are not anyone you should mess with. It was also time of economical expansion in science, medicine, technology and so on. In 1950s USA was involved in Korean War. In 1960s they partici

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