Key terminology of the British Isles and British regionalism (north and south divide, Manchaster, Liverpool)
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1. Key Terminology of the British Isles and British Regionalism - The United Kingdom of Great British Isles and Northern Ireland -Great Britain– geographical term, biggest island -British – political term -Ireland – Republic of Ireland – Irish, Celtic language - Northern Ireland – British or Irish Archipelago= group of islands, geographical terms, all islands together -British Isles – geographical term -Crown dependencies: - belong to the Queen -The Channel Islands– coast in France (Normanské ostrovy) -The Isle of Man - these are tax havens, part of British islands, have their own internal political structure - Wales – Cardiff, Northern Ireland – Belfast, Scotland - Edinburgh LANGUAGES - languages originating from the Indian Subcontinent – Hindi, Bengali - UK was always society of more nations – Polish etc. –traditionalmulticultural society -mass immigration – 20th century - after 2WW workers were needed, everybody was welcomed -Empire Windrush – cruised ship, 1948 arrived in Britain → beginning of post-war mass migration - allowing citizens → free market of Bangladesh - need for new infrastructure - Jamaican people - hostile environment policy = kdo nemůže dokázat, že je Brit si nemůže pronajmout dům - 87% of people in Britain is white THE NORTH x SOUTH DIVIDE - people can be much warmer in the North -Grim = not very nice, very serious or unpleasant, bleak, dismal, hopeless - industrial environment - cold, rain Light x dark - absence of nature -Manchester region – sound system, squatting - Hinckley, Mansfield, Grimsby - difference in pronunciation, migrations in North – totally different dialect because ofVikings(linguistic divide) - it is based on vowel sounds (samohlásky) - industrial revolution → stereotypes History of Manchester in the North -1st industrial city - man made canals- rivers - trains - textiles, cotton – processing production – because of rainy environment they can store it - 1750 – it was large village - from 1751 – population of 20k, 1801 – 328k, 1861 –1,6 mil. - overcrowding, pollution - people moving from country side -first industrial citybuilt on factories -based on poverty - 1819 Peterloo Massacre – cavalry (jezdectvo) charged into a crowd of 80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation - protesting over bad working conditions - they wanted democracy and voting parliament -people tried to publish newspaper – they wanted to spread the truth →The Guardian – originally Manchester Guardian, people fighting for democracy - in 1880 Britain exported to the whole world - post war decline, welfare state, industrial economic decline (pokles) - 1960 after 2WW –power industry → strong trade unions(odbory) – as powerful as government - 1945 man fighting in France - 1970s European economic community – escaping post war economic decline - economy is rich but not running properly - Thatcher (ism) - smashed the trade unions, general strike → trade union is broken - 1 mil. → 3 mil. Unemployment - traditional working-class economies - social chaos and rioting -growth in music – The Smiths,Oasis – individualism,Joy Division - rave - The Smiths – for people who didn’t fit in, morbid, child abuse, unemployment -1990s reborn as post industrial city - everyone in moving here - Manchester United - Britain in some places never recovered from industrial revolution - it was hard to be homosexual in Manchester, now it ismassivelycosmopolitan, financial services Liverpool - unique character -port city, one of the main ports of industrial revolution –city created in indust. rev. – industrial origin -cotton arrived here - dockers -black market economy - sailors →prostitution, they were drunk and wanted to spend money → pickpockets andcriminality - stealing cotton from Caribbean states - cotton → Liverpool → goods –making money from trade slavers - slaves from Africa - textiles, transatlantic slave trade =triangle of death(* Southern United states/Caribbean → cotton to Liverpool) ↑ ↑ Slaves from Africa - ,,To get down to the nitty gritty” = to the fundamental issue - slave trades – first black community 18th century - Liverpudlian accent – unique, 1mil Irish left to Liverpool (potato famine) - Liverpool cathedral –catholic – because of Irish, but also protestant