The British Mass Media
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T H E B R I T I S H M A S S M E D I A Newspapers, radio, television, internet and the other media are very important for us. We can get through them the newest information from the wholE world even if we are in the remotest village. Some people disown media, but they are very important to keep this world working. Newspapers Newspapers are the oldest of the mass media (they have been there from the end of the 17th century). In Britain, there are about120 daily and Sunday newspapers, and over4000 periodicals(weeklies, monthlies and quarterlies). They cover a big number of interests, from woman´s magazines to magazines specializing in science, politics, finance, and economics. In most daily newspapers readers can find home news, foreign news, editorials, human interest stories, financial news, a woman´s page, sport news, news on the arts and pop music, TV programme guides, letters to the editor, and great many advertisements. The daily press in Britain is divided into two groups: thequality press and thepopular press. Quality papers are thick and serious. They are bought and read by a smaller group of well informed readers. The most important quality papers areTHE TIMES, which is Britain´s oldest newspaper, founded in 1785,THE GUARDIAN, THE TELEGRAPH, THE INDENPENDENT,andTHE FINANCIAL TIMES. They have smaller circulation than the popular ones. Popular papers have millions of readers. They adress the lower classes, have fewer pages, shorter articles with big headlines and lots of illustrations and are written with a simple language. They are about sport, fashion, sex and crimes. The most important papers are:THE SUN, DAILY MIRROR, DAILY EXPRESSand DAILY MAIL. Some papers come out only on Sundays and are known asSunday papers. The most important areTHE OBSERVER andTHE SUNDAY TIMES. They are quite bulky and have several special sections with reviews of books, plays, films, art events, business and sport news. Theweekly periodicals with the highest sales are:THE RADIO TIMESand TV TIMESand some of the woman´s magazines. The mainpolitical weeklies areTHE ECONOMIST andTHE SPECTATOR. Radio In Britain radio and television broadcasting in mainly provided bythe British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The BBC has provided radio broadcasting services since1922. There are four national wide radio stations operated by the BBC: Radio 1 broadcasts pop music and programmes especially for a young audience. Radio 2 is a light programme for all age groups, it´s especially for housewives and workers.Radio 3 plays almost only classical music. Radio 4 offers news, discussions about current internatinal and national affairs (political and social events) and quiz programmes. Another public radio is theIBA, theIndenpendent Broadcasting Authority. The IBA controls the operation of network of indenpendent local radio stations. There are62 of them, in London and other areas (densely populated). They provide popular programmes, national and local news, programmes of local affairs and community activities. TheBBC WORLD SERVICE broadcasts to almost every country of the world in 37 languages including English. The main English services include the World Service in English which is broadcast world-wide 24 hours a day. Television There is a good choice of television channels in Britain. The television started to broadcast in1936. The main TV domainBBC has an opponent in theITV. The differnece between them is that the income of the BBC is from the sale of television licences and there is no advertising, but the service of the ITV is financed by the advertisements. There are four television channels:BBC 1, BBC 2, ITV andCHANNEL 4. TheBBC 1 presents a wide range of programmes for people of all interests, the same pays for theBBC 2 but there is a heavy accent on educational programmes. The two indenpendent Television channels are theITV andChannel 4, they present programmes with a popular appeal, artistic and cultural interests. There are short advertising intervals in and between programmes. The advertisers pay the programme companies for the advertising time. Therefore the ITV and Channel 4 are also calles„commercial televisions“. International satellite links make it possible to exchange programmes between Europe and America.8 British based satellite TV channels have been set up to provide programmes in Britain and Europe.