The Czech Republic - anglická verze
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THE CZECH REPUBLIC The Czech Republic is the state which we live, and which most of us were also born. It is our native country. The Czech Republic is situated in Central Europe. It is said that it lies in heart of Europe. The Czech Republic is an inland country. Which its area of 78864km2 it is located in the temperate climatic zone. Our republic has four neighbours. In the north it borders on Poland and in the south on Austria. The shortest border is with Slovakia in the east and the longest with Germany in the west. The Czech Republic has a population of about 10,3 million. Some live in Bohemia, others in Moravia and some in Silesia. The three oldest parts of our republic are Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. Besides Czechs, Moravians and Selesians, different national minorities live there as well. There are Slovaks, Poles, Germans, Hungarians and Romanies. Prague is the capital of the Czech Republic. It is home to more than 1,2 million people. Mountain ranges form our country´s natural borders. The surface of our country is rather hilly. The Western border is formed by the Krušné Mountains, where the highest peak is called Klínovec (1244 m). The Šumava range, where we can find a lot of swamps, extends to the south. Also two glacial lakes can be found there – Černé and Čertovo. The Šumava range is kown for its original virgin forest. There are a lot of old trees and bushes. It is dangerous for tourists to walk there on their own. The highest mountains in the Czech Republic are the Giant Mountains. That´s where the highest peak in the Czech Republic, Sněžka, is located, reaching a height of 1602 m. The Jizerské Mountains lie on the border with Poland, where the Orlické Mountains are also located. Other mountain ranges visited by tourists are, for example, Beskydy, Hrubý Jeseník and the Little Carpathians along the border with Slovakia. Czech nature can offer tourists much that is of interest. Sandy rocks in Český Ráj or stalactite caves in Moravský Kras are a frequent destination of visitors. The underground rivulet Punkva flows there. The greatest abyss, called Macocha, which is also situated in Moravský Kras, is 138 m deep. The Czech Republic does not have any seacoast, but it has many navigable rivers. Thanks to the Ebe, Morava and Oder we can use the ports of neighbouring countries. The Elbe has its source in the Giant Mountains and leaves our native country at Hřensko. It flows throughout Germany and enters the North Sea. The largest and the most important tributary of the Elbe is the Vltava. Several dams have been built on this river, for example Lipno, Orlík and Slapy. These dams are not only used for the production of electricity, but are in the first place a favourite destination for people, who come here for recreation and amusement. A lot of people spend their holidays or vacations there. Onother important river is the Oder that drains water from our country into the Baltic Sea. The MOrava and its tributary the Dyje flow into the Danube, which flows into the Black Sea. So the Czech Republic is connected to other countries that abut this sea. South Bohemia is known for its large and numerous ponds. Freshwater fish are farmed there, primarily carp. The largest pond, Rožumberk, was artificially created in the 15th and 16th centuries, it covers an area of approximately 479 hectares. The Czech Republic has a large number of spas. Spa services have a long tradition. They are visited by healthy as wellas sick people from our country and from abroad. Among the most famous are Karlovy Vary, Františkovy Lázně , Jánské Lázně. Other important spas can be found in Moravia – Luhačovice and Velké Losiny. The Czech Republic has seventy seven districts (including Prague). Nevertheless, the number of country settlements keeps on increasing. The largest city in the Czech Republic is Prague (1,2 million inhabitants), other large cities are Brno (390 000 inhabitants), Ostrava (330000 inhabitants), Plzeň (175,000 inhabitants), Liberec (101000 inhabitants), Olomouc (106000 inhabitants(, Hradec Králové (100000 inhabitants), Ústí nad Labem (99000 inhabitants), České Budějovice (99000 inhabitants) and Pardubice )95000 inhabitants). Our country is rich in minerals. Black and brown coal, lignite, sand for glass-making, etc., are mined there. Traditionally the main industrial area has been located in the northern part of the country. After the year 1948 industry developed in the southern and castern regions as well. Among the prominent industrial cities are Prague, Brno, Ostrava, Kladno, Plzeň, Sokolov, Karlovy Vary, Most, LItvínov, Chomutov, Teplice, Ústí nad Labem, etc. Fuel and energy industries are very well developed in the Czech Republic. To produce energy, thermal power stations (e.g. Tušimice, Chvaletice, Počerady, Mělník), nuclear power plants (Dukovany and Temelín) and hydroelectric power plants (Lipno, Orlík, Slapy, Dalešice) are used. Other industries include mettalurgy (Ostrava, Kladno areas), the machine tool industries(Brno, Plzeň, Prague), chemical industry (Litvínov, Ústí nad LAbem), building industry, consumer industry, food industry, and other sorts of industry. Czech beer brewing (Plzeň) and wine making (South Moravia) have a long tradition and popularity both at home and abroad. The lowlands are important for agriculture and crop farming. The most extensive Czech lowland is Polabská. ¨The land along the banks of the river Morava is very fertile. Agricultural production serves to feed the people of the republic. Our country is self-sufficient in food production. In the lowlands the following heat-loving crops are grown – sugar beet, sunflowers, sweet corn, fruits and vegetables. Poultry is also kept there. In the more elevated areas turnips, barley and wheat are grown. In the highlands mainly potatoes and some types of grain (rye and oats) are grown. Pigs and sheep are bred here. In mountain areas highland cattle are reared. The most frequently used form of transportation is by rail and