The United States of America
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13.MO – The United States of America - basic geographical and historical facts - original inhabitants - national symbols - type of administration - economy - culture, places of interest Osnova: GeographyPeopleHistoryNational symbolsPolitical systemEconomyCulture – places of interest 1.GEOGRAPHY - situated in the southern part of North America - borders with Canada (North), Mexico (South), Russia (in Alaska) - around 10 million square km - 4th largest country - capital city is Washington D.C. - surrounded by Atlantic and Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico - landscape is diverse – from central plains to high mountains - mountain ranges: Appalachian and Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada - highest peak is Mount Mc Kinley in Alaska (6168 m) - lowest point is Death Valley - largest rivers are Mississippi and Missouri third largest river system in the world - on Canadian border: Niagara Falls, 5 Great lakes (Ontario, Erie, Huron, Superior, Michigan) - climate is varied – from subarctic in Alaska to subtropic in Florida or Hawaii 2.PEOPLE - 320 million inhabitants - third most populous country - national language is English 3.HISTORY 1492 discovered by Christopher Columbus He named inhabitants Indians Sometimes it is called beginning of the modern age1507 continent named after Amerigo Vespucci17th century Puritans (Separatist) decided to seek religious freedom – typical colony was named Massachusetts Bay colony, these first colonists are known as Pilgrim FathersManhattan was bought by the Dutch from Indians – they named it New Amsterdam1664 Britain conquered Manhattan and renamed it New York1773 Boston tea party – protesters throw the shipment of tea to the sea1775-83 war of independence4th July 1776 Declaration of Independence – first president G. Washington19th century civil warW. W. I. – Woodrow Wilson managed to keep the States out of the war1929 Black Friday – stock market in Wall StreetW. W. II. – 41 Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour, 45 were atom bombs (Hiroshima, Nagasaki)1963 J.F.K. assassinated2009 first African-American president Barack Obama elected 4.NATIONAL SYMBOLS - flag, anthem and Great Seal -flag: consists of 13 red and white stripes (original British colonies) and a blue field called Canton with 50 stars (US states), nickname is Stars and Stripes. 1777 first original flag. -anthem: The star-spangled banner -Great Seal: bald eagle holding an olive branch and 13 arrows 5.POLITICAL SYSTEM - federal presidential constitutional republic - the government is divided into 3 branches – the executive, legislative, judicial - executive branch is headed by the president (D. Trump) - president have seat in White House and is elected every 4 years, haven´t got unlimited power - the legislative branch is represented by the Congress – made up by the Senate (100 members) and the House of representatives (435 members) seat in US Capitol - the major parties are the Democratic and Republican Party - the judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court and Lower federal court 6.ECONOMY - enormously rich in raw materials – natural gas, phosphates, salt, coal, minerals - one of a top producer of peanuts, wheat, cotton and dairy products - leading country in production of chemicals, cars, machinery, computers - currency is US dollar - North California – Silicon Valley global centre for high technologies, innovations and social medias 7.PLACES OF INTEREST Washington D.C. Named by 1. president G. Washington 1790 become capital city D.C. – District of Columbia Capitol – seat of government White house – seat of president Washington monument Jefferson and Lincoln memorialsNew York city Most populous city 5 parts (Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx, Staten Island) Statue of liberty – on liberty island, from France The Empire state building – amazing skyline on top Wall street – financial centrum Times square, Broadway, Central parkAnother: LA, Hollywood, San Francisco (Golden gate bridge), Las Vegas, ChicagoNational Parks Yellowstone – oldest one Yosemite, Grand Canyon Otázky: Sport: NFL (American footbal), NBA (Baketball), NHL (ice hockey), Baseball, 4 times Olympic games (last in Utah in 2002), US open and golf tournament