UK political system
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MODERN BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTÉM - we dont really see one event - slow evolution of certain events -Magna Charta– 1215, King John - people wanted to force the king to make decisions - not to be punish for rebelling - it separate idea that justice is above the king - Parliament (set up idea that justice is independent) - there should be some advice given to the king - 1340s separation of two houses - House of lords (stop check) and House of commons - Wigan/wicca = sm like parliament, council of most important people - they would choose next king where there was not one - early 13th century, modern state comes from this time - 1215 Parliament is established, establishment of House of lords - representing next level of society - 17th century – Tudors - modernized parliament - Westminster - central, London based - Parliament makes decisions – speaker of the house -The Civil War 1640s - Parliament controlled by Puritans – round heads x Royalists (believe inDivine right of kings) = believe that king is pointed by God, he has all rights - do we really need the king? Limiting his powers and making parliament more powerful - making money through trade –Merchantcapitalism - brief protectorate/republic - Charles II. (po Charles I.) they let him have many powers as he likes, many mistresses he likes - Parliament is going to be able to remove the King if need to - James II. Of England 1685 - catholic - parliament becomes split by political believe -first political parties -Tories xWhigs - T- tradition of monarchy - W- don’t like James II. - agreement 1688 – James II. Is too much trouble - they found William of Orange to be a king -Bill of Rights = it establishes constitutional monarchy - it lays down limits on the powers of the monarch and sets out the rights of Parliament -unwritten constitution =it is written, but not in one document - It is made up of European law → Parliamentary act - 18th century union of English and Scottish Parliament - early 1700s Scottish and British parliament become one - time of George I. (German can’t speak English) → needs someone to represent his politics in Parliament → idea of prime minister – will be the leader of biggest group in parliament - Tories x Whigs - max 10% have the vote - Industrial period, agricultural revolution - 1850s - majority of people don’t have political representation - 3% of country has the vote - votes can be sold and bought - oligarchy, unrepresented -reformist movements - 1819 demonstration for democracy, Peterloo Massacre - increase of suffrage – more representation, more men are given the vote - 1899/1900 now working classes have real vote in politics - socialist and reforming groups get together – Labour party -three party system - Whigs – The liberal party - Tories – conservative party - Labour party(smallest), after WW1, 1920s - Liberal democrats - Britain becomes democracy in 1918/1928 – unmarried women - women under 30 unmarried need to wait to 1928 to have vote - Labour vs. conservatives – who is going to become more successful - 1945 Labour – creation of full welfare state after WW2, offered people housing, employment benefit, state which would take care for you - Churchill did not win the elections for prime minister, people voted against him - creation of socialized country - services under government control – coll mining - 1950s-80s – trade unions are almost as powerful as government – miners - industries decline, empire, new economies - trades unions were guaranteed by government - miners – if they are going to strike, they can stop the country -post war consensus – we will have the welfare state - democratic socialist labour party -socialism – one nation conservatism - another name for conservative party – - transforming into multicultural society - right win fog cons. Party – deeply against it - over racism in politics - n word for neighbour – labour - race riots -National front – 1970s rising of employment, Industrial decline, increasing of 1st gen of immigrants, Jamaica, rising of xenophobic way of resentment, immigrants work hard, 2nd gen want their rights , big wave of nationalism in 70s, nazi organization – National front, street confrontations, harassing people, on the street, leadership, it looked like they will be 3rd biggest force in British politics - 1970 Labour are discredited, social chaos, mess -Margaret Thatcher - thatcherism - process of privatization - awakening of welfare state - cutting bag housing benefit, social - pensions being frozen - cutting social services - struction of trade unions - council houses - much more free market economy - deregulation of the financial market in London (top 3, London, Tokyo, Wall Street) - reaction to this - constitutional changes - 1975 referendum of joining in EEC - 1992 EU – workers - 2004 – after more countries joined EU – more workers from EU - unwritten constitution – je written ale na vice palces - EU law - House of commons - Brexit reasons – 1. sovereignty = suverenita – justification of Brexit - peoples perception of these issues, perception of sovereignty – British mistacally believed that - take back control - fake news, miss representation of EU laws, campaign, miss information - false narrating sovereinty - why people wanted to leave EU - cultural identity in a loss of přistěhovalci, homofobic fears - lack of investment in health care – comes from Thatcherism - xenophobic people - 2008 – economic recession, crash - rise on xenophobia – taking wages = mzdy - David Cameron – EU referendum - he thought he would be in coalition, politic ambitions, self interest - protest votebased up on nationalism – middle, north, we want to change establishment = zřízení - new political party – UKIP – N. Farage - they win EU elections because no one voted - conservative party was split – pro EU x against EU – internal problems in conservative party - idea of British identity and soverency = důstojnost - patriotism, nationalism - idea of British national character, fear of forei