4. The USA
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Iveta Navrátilová, 4. A The USA Geography - The United States of America has 50 states 48 states are situated in the southern part of North America. Alaska is situated in the North and Hawaii in the Mid- Pacific. The neighbours are Canada in the north, Mexico in the south. Temperatures chase from arctic cold in northem Alaska to subtropical warmth in Hawaii and the Gulf Coast States. There are many national parks in the USA, especially in the Rocky Mountains Region, where there are Rocky Mountain National Park, Yellowstone National Park and the Grand Canyon national park. The highest mountain in the USA is Mount McKinley in the Alaska Rang, which is 6 194 m high. The largest rivers are the Mississippi and the Missouri. The USA population is about 300 000 000. Around 79 per cent of inhabitants live in urban areas. Now there are 79 per cent of white people, 12 per cent of black people and the rest are Asian and Pacific islanders, Indians and Eskimos. The main language spoken here is American English but various ethnic minorities speak their originál languages (Chinese, Spanish). Natural dangers – The Pacifik Basin faces danger mainly from earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires and mudslides, while those living on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts must beware of hurricanes. The Midwest suffers mainly from tornadoes, as does the southeast. The american flag has 13 red and white stripes and on the blue field in the top corner there are 50 white stars. Each star represents one of the 50 states and each strip represents one of original state. Government – The USA with the President as the head of state. The USA is the member of all major international organizations: UN, NATO, OECD. American Political System – The main body is called Congress – its seat is in the Capitol. The Congress is dividend into two parts – the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives consists of 435 lawmakers who are elected for two years. The Senate has 100 members – 2 members from each state, who serve six years. The President together with his Vice President is chosen every 4 years. There are two main political parties in the USA – The Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Economy- The currency is american dollar. Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field. The United States is the third largest producer of oil in the world, as well as its largest importer. It is the world's number one producer of electrical and nuclear energy, as well as liquid natural gas, sulfur, phosphates, and salt. The United States most trade with China, and Europe. They export car and machines to Europe and they import clothes, CP technology, and so on. Capital of the USA – Washington, D. C. (district of columbia) – There are the most important buildings in the USA – the White House – residence of the American President. Now is the president Barack Obama, the Capitol – the seat of the congress, the Pentagon – the center of military forces. Interesting places – In the USA is not a lot of sights, because it is jung country. Statue of liberty in New York City is a symbol of both the U.S. and ideals of freedom, democracy, and oportunity. Niagara falls are situated between Canada and USA. Los Angeles is the second largest city in the USA. Here we can find the famous film center called Hollywood. In San Diego is the biggest zoo in the Word. Florida also has Disney World and Epcot Center. Now I would like tell you something about the history of the USA. I will start with: First settlements – In 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered America. The first English colony was founded in Virginia at Jamestown in 1607. The colony plymouth were members of religion sect called pilgrim fathers, but in winter about one half of them died. The next year in October 1621 they celebrate good harvest and the day of celebrations they called thanksgiving day. Today, is Thanksgiving Day, one of the most popular holidays. The War of Independence - George washington took over the command of a continental army. The continental congress began to work as a national government and on July 4th, 1776 they agreed on the declaration of independence written mainly by Thomas Jefferson. This is the day, when the usa was founded. The war of independence lasted till 1783. The new constitution was adopted in 1787. Civil war – About 60 years of never ending discuses about slaves freedom led to the civil war between the north and the south. It started in 1861 after Abrahem Lincoln was elected president in 1860. Lincoln the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 which granted freedom to all slavers. In april the union forces won the war.