6. Key moments in american history
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Key Moments in American History Profile:American Warfare (From the War of Independence to 2WW) State: From the Discoveries to the civil war Prehistory: first step on the Vikings (1 000)Leif EricsonFirst inhabitants – mostly hunters that lay foundations for Native American population came ataround 12 000 B.C. through a land bridge (Beringia) between Asia and North America. They did so almost certainlywithout knowing they had crossed into a new continent.The first Europeans to arrive in North America wereNorse,at around 1000 A.D. – namelyErik the Red and later his son Lief, travelling west from Greenland. Theyexplored the north-east coast of what is now Canada (namelyNewfoundland).In 1492 Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribbean in search of the western route to Asia(12th October the Columbus Day)America was named by Amerigo Vespucci The Colonial period (1607-1776): the French, Dutch, British, Spanish, Portuguese (Europeans which made settlements / colonies in America)theAmerindians the Apache, the Mohawks, the Cherokees, the Dakotasit wasn’t easy to live next to each other fights between Europeans and Amerindiansduring this time,13 colonies formed along the eastern coast of North America – most of them began as English coloniesthecolonist learned about their new lands from the American Indians – many of colonist tried to live peacefully side by side with Indians→ with more colonists coming,fighting between those two groupsincreased.1584: Sir WalterRaleigh established the first English colony in what we now call the USA; its name wasVirginia.1607: Thefirst successfulsettlement in Virginia –Jamestown.1620: A group ofPuritan refugees from England, known asthe PilgrimFathers, reached in their shipMayflower the coast of North America (Massachusetts) and founded a settlement calledPlymouth. the first colonies established in the North were calledNew England Pilgrim Fathers werePuritans who escaped religious persecution; They werehard-working, courageous, steadfast and enterprising Indians who helpedthe Pilgrims wereinvited toThanksgiving feast in 16211620 – 1640: some 30 000 Puritans settled inNew England, but when the English Revolution began their exodus weakened and the Royalists started to come in. The Royalists emigrated to Virginia where they bought large estates (lands)1681: W.Penn, Quaker, founded the colony ofPensylvania – place, where Quakers and people of other faiths could enjoy religious freedom→he helped to establishreligous tolerance as a basic value in the US colonies Situation in the 2 nd part of the 17th century: South – English colonies (Virginia, North Carolina)North – English colonies (New England)Between these – a Dutch colony (New Netherlands, with the capital New Amsterdam – later in 1664 New York)West of Appalachians – French colonies: New France (today´s Canada) Lousiana - Mississippi valleyEnglish–French wars: Seven Years´ War (1756 – 1763); the English won The American Revolution – The War of Independence (1775 – 1783): Till 1763: American support→defeat of the French After that: prohibiton of moving further West and extanding territory – no money for fighting with Indians –GB has to pay its own war debts→increasing taxes for Americans and preventing them from free international trade (to keep them for GB→source of money)A movement to end Britih rule in American colonies became active in the 1770‘s1765: Stamp act – all printed material including newspapers→ resistance andboycott of English goods It was later revoked, but the autonomy of colonies was bannes and new taxes (duties) introduced→again the boycott→raising the number of soldiers in US, duties are revokedapart from tea – British monopol1773: The Boston Tea Party – the act of throwing a cargo of tea into the sea in protest against the duty on it. local settlersdressed as Native Americans from this point on the struggle for independence got stronger1775: war between GB and the colonies1776: TheContinental Congress (representatives of 13 colonies) met inPhiladelphia as a rebellious body, which organized first American troops commanded byGeorge Washington. - On 4th July 1776 – The Declaration of Independence was adopted and proclaimed. Theauthor of this document wasThomas Jefferson. Thus, in fact the War of Independence started. From the Declaration of Independence:“All the men are created equal; all men have the right to life, libertyand the pursuit of happiness.“ Consent of the govored – idk !!!!!!!!!!! They formed the United States of America – independent from British, own laws Powerful countries In Europe – wanted to get their support – needed regognizing from Founding fathers: G. Washington, T. Jefferson, B. Franklin = formation of the country's new government The war of Independence At first, Washington´s army suffered several defeats but later on the superiority of the British began to weaken, mainly because they didn´tknow the area. Americans got the support from the volunteers from Europe and laterfrom the French and Spanish army1783: Britain recognized USA Treaty of Paris the original 13 colonies who were proclaimed independent aresymbolized in the13 stipes of the American flag GB also gave the nation rights to almost all the territorybetween the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.1788: The Constitutionadopted USA a federation: Congress (House of Representatives + Senate)1789 – George Washington – the first president1791 – Bill of Rights (freedom of speech, religion etc.) – konečná forma Constitution – long process of ratifing THE AMENDMENTS – first 10 freedom of speech, religion egual opportunities (FOR WHITE RICH MEN), right to keep bear arms (weapons) - stars and stripes – 50 + district of Colombia During the period of 1790 – 1860 the area of the USA almost trebled (buying Lousiana from France, getting Florida from Spain, Texas from Mexico…)beginning of the 19th cent. – expansion; pushing away the Indians, building of roads, railways, also first steamboats appeared at that time1860