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The early american history (vikings, 1492, 1607 Jamestown, Civil war)

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EARLY AMERICAN HISTORY - Discovery x exploration – sm we know about its existence Suddenly happens - Vikings – 1000, Leif Ericson - Christopher Columbus 1492 – 10th October Columbus Day - Amerigo Vespucci – name -The French, Dutch, British, Spanish, Portuguese - sphere of influence -1492 Christopher Columbus – Italian serving Spanish queen, he intended to go to India and found a new path but discovered America – Indians – thought he is in India, 3 ships, symbol of exploration - native inhabitants – indigenons (native) population –The Amerindians general term to refer to Indians - The Mohawks, The Cherokeez, The Dakotas, The Apache - fights between European settlers and Indians -Americans – all the people in America that came - Londoners, Yorkies (Yorkshire), Germans, Swiss, Africans -indentured servants = employee who is bound by a forced contract to work without pay for the owner for a period of time - they lived in pueblos - settlements not colonies - The first settlement 1607 Virginia Jamestown -British – The Pilgrim Fathers = the English settlers who established the Plymouth (plymuth) colony inMassachusetts, they were Dutch, German, Irish - puritans, religious refugees, try to escape religious persecution and prosecution - large protestant group -fundamentalists – protestants, but puritans because believed in fundamental ideas, pleasure was prohibited – focused on the Old testament - people should live according to it - most of then spoke English, but from Netherlands, Ireland, Germany - 1620s started cruise in Plymouth - port, ship Mayflower - during the journey half of them died - arrived in Massachusetts + Vermont, Pennsylvania, New York –New England states - first settlement Plymouth - Massachusetts one of the most important -Mayflowercompact – document, signed on the board of the ship, signed by all 41 men -ship - they declared that when they land/arrive, they will decide about everything together – equality between men - Declaration of Independence, Constitution – Mayflower compact was very first document signed by people coming to America in which they decide/proclaim that from now on they will decide together - no leading person, board – together – men - první pilíře demokracie Strangers = people of other believe - diet was poor, they didn’t know the plants and the animals - Indians –Squanto tribe, chief!!!!!!!! - they helped him how to grow corn, hunt, how to prepare wild turkey – this saved their life - first harvest lead to firstThanksgiving Day – celebration of surviving, friendship between native, celebrated last Thursday in November, after black Friday, Thomas Jefferson made it national holiday - strong legacy, heritage of the Mayflower – Massachusetts – Boston – quite enlarge elite class that still refer themselves to be potomci -BostonBrahmins – Hinduism, India, - kasty, ta důležitá, vypůjčili si jméno - přímí potomci, elites do not fit well,Dudleys, Cabots, Winslows - příjmení -Yankee – north and east, during civil war xDickies - intellectuals, live in one Boston neighbourhood, surnames,protestants, exclusive, Harvard, accent - only marry within clans, keep both names - white protestant rich educated - late 19th early 20th century, extravagant – lions like pets¨ - posh - permanent settlement – Jamestown 1607 –king James - James – king, Virginia – Elizabeth I. - Virginia company – population –colony – Elizabeth I. - entrepreneurs = podnikatelé - they will get rich, richer people, had enough money to buy the slaves - labour, kids, prisoners, not slaves indentured servants (7 years – then free) - 2 prisoners sentenced to death, 1 gone to America, other one preferred to stay in prison - certain chunk of population for whom going in unknown country was only option, nothing to lose - brides for sale - young, Pocahontas, Virginia company took prostitutes from streets of London and brought them there, taken to usa - young girls 15-19 - sold for 120 pounds of tobacco leaves THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE - 4th of July 1776 1) - taxation impost by the British – because of seven years war (FRxVB) – conflict over superiority over European power over seas - first global conflict = French Indian war – term used by Americans - British won, cost of the war – proto daně - empire, in debt, needed funds - said to the colonists that they need to pay for the expenses - Oliver Cromwell –navigation acts - applied on list of gods and comodities - colonies were forbidden to trate with other country than England -The Stamp Act: 1765 – kolek = zákon o kolkovném – BRITISH WERE IN DEBT FROM SEVEN YEARS WAR – NEEDED TO RAISE MONEY – 1756 - 1763 Na všechno papírové zboží (časopis, noviny, karty) I legal documents – drahé, making money from it - colonists se bouří - all the paper products – newspaper, magazines, legal documents - “no taxation without representation” is tyrony – Franklin recycled it - founding fathers= constitution and declaration – Adams. Jefferson, Franklin - wanted to have representation, didn’t want to break from British empire - 1st Continental Congress- wanted to stay as part of Britain - 2nd political and military accion - Boston Massacre – nelíbil se jim stamp act - colonists were angry because of the stamp act, they gaddered, protested, Boston Harbour, british soldiers, troops - Paul Revere – engraving (rytina) was published I nthe boston gazzete - troops marched into the crowd, they started to throw snow balls, stones in the snow balls, colonists were the first start - one of British troops is depicted Proč je to ve favour of colonists? 1.command/order 2. faces 3. enjoying the violence 4. colonists – gentlemen 5. butches hall, customs office 6. women Butchers hall – symbolize opprecion, customs office – cla, stamps, taxation - propaganda Americans started the conflict, not British 1770 1770 Boston massacre - 1773 Boston tea party - dressed as Indians – get some time, to not be blamed - led to independence -reaction to boston tea party: British imposed the Intolerable Acts (coers

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