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The USA

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The USA GEOGRAPHY: The United States of America is a federal republic of 50 states, including the state of Alaska and the island state of Hawaii in the mid – Pacific Ocean. The states are bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico, and to the west by the Pacific Ocan. The capital is Washington. The total area of the United States is 9 529 063 square kilometres. The US is the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. The Rocky Mountains and the Coastal Mountains bound central plains to west, the Appalachian Mountains to east and alluvial plains around the Gulf of Mexico. The highest mountain in the USA is Mount McKinley in the Alaska Range which is 6 194 m high. The largest rivers are the Mississippi and the Missouri (together 6 212kms). It is the third longest river system in the world after the Amazon and the Nile. Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario share the USA with Canada. Climate: Temperatures change from the artic cold in northern Alaska to subtropical warmth of Hawaii and the Gulf Coast States. Tere are many national parks in the USA, especially in the Rocky Mountains Region (Yellowstone, Grand Canyon). USA is divided into four parts-The Northeast, The South, The Midwest and The West. THE NORTHEAST: Nine states make up the Northeast: Maine, Vemont /New Hampshire, New York, Massachusetts, Connectiaut/ Rhode Island, Pennsylvania/ New Jersey (They were part of the first 13 colonies). Northeastern states tend to have cold winters and warm summers. Most of these states have mountains. The Appalachian Mountains cut through the Northeast. There are many factories in the Northeast. Stone, lumber, glass and steel are the products common to this area. Water power and coal are used to run factories. The people of the Northeast also have much in common. Many came from Europe (Italian, Irish, German, Polish and Slavic people). They came in large numbers to work in the factories. Interesting places are N.Y., Washington, famous universities like Harward, Yale and Princeton. Boston is connected with “Boston Tea Party” and foundation of USA. THE SOUTH: The South includes 14 states (Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida). There was a war between the North and the South, called the Civil War. The war was primarily about slavery. The northern states wanted to forbid slavery and the southern states wanted to allow it. CLIMATE: There is a mild climate in the southern states . The summers are long and lot while the winters are short and mild. Cotton, tobacco and sugarcane are grown here. LAND: There is a long coastline and fishing is important. Port cities have grown along the ocean and gulf. Florida, for example, is a major resort area. The Appalachian Mountains reach into the south. Coal is one of the few resources. Many rivers flow through the South and therefore the South have grown in the areas of shipping, making electricity and making good farnland. Rivers also cause floods and much damage. The Mississippi River is the largest river in the U.S.- it is a rich source of life for South. THE PEOPLE: Many black people live in the South. They influence life, treditions, cooking, clothes, southern music and atmosphere of this part of USA. The South is the home of great American jazz. Jazz and gospel music were begun by southern blacks. Rock and roll music as well as country and western music also has their roots here. Interesting places – Nashwille – the country of country music, Memphis-E. Presley, New Orleans is the city where jazz was bon. Atlanta is the cradle of Coca-Cola. THE MIDWEST: The Midwest includes 12 states (Michigan, Wiscon, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Missouri and Kansas). Much of our food comes from the Midwest. That is why it is called our “breadbasket”.Wheat, corn and soybeans are grown here. Meat and dairy products are shipped nationwide. Iron, gold, coal and oil are also found here. Lumber is also an important product from the large forests that cover the northern lake area. The lakes and rivers provide life and fun for many people. Factory cities crowd the Great Lakes shores. The weather of the Midwest is extreme. In winter, extreme cold blasts the Midwest. In summer, there is extreme heat. Another extreme is the storms, blizzards in the winter and severe thunderstorms in summer. The People: Settlers came to the Midwest after the Revolutionary War because they needed new famrland. Slavery was one early problem because people came from both the South and North and had to decide about slavery. Interesting places are St. Louis where is a monurment “Gateway Arch”- it comme morales starting point of first settlers who went to the West to find new homes. In the north of the Midwest are industrial centres such as Chicago (is the centre of steel and iron industries), Detroit (is the centre of US car industry – Ford, Cadillac). The West: The west is made up of 15 states (Montana, Washington, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California, New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma, Texas, Alaska and Hawaii). The west is divided into three areas: the desert Southwest, the Rocky Mountain states and the Pacific states. The Southwest - The desert Southwest includes four states: Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. - The southwestern landscape is dry plains and desert, The summer heat can be extrem, over 100 degrees. - Cotton is the largest single crop and large cattle or sheep ranches use much of the land. - The major rivers are the Rio Grande and the Colorado. - Three southwestern state have borders with Mexico: Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. - Many families have a Mexican background and are known as Mexican- Americans or Chicanos (inhabitants who have roots in Mexico). Mexicans have a big effect on the life in the So

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