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17.maturitní otázka z angličtiny Mass media Introduction Everybody needs to be in touch with the outside world. To get information, we use mass media. It is not difficult to use them, mostly the ability to read or listen is enough. Mass media are everywhere around us and it is no problem to get access to them. There are various types of media, different people prefer different ones. However, we cannot say, that the media are completely different in different countries – the basic characteristics are everywhere the same. Newspapers and magazines Newspapers are a traditional and still widely used source of information. Many people buy a copy of them regularly, some newspapers are distributed free. The newspaper consists of articles. Some are serious (news, reviews, sports page), some not (feature articles, gossip column). An editorial is an article written by the editor (person in charge of the newspaper) to explain his/her opinion about something. Every article needs a headline and the name of the journalist (reporter) or correspondent from abroad who wrote it. The newspaper usually contains other things, like crosswords, horoscopes, weather forecasts, comic strips, letters pages, obituaries or classified ads. The pictures (with captions under them) among the columns of the text make it look interesting. U.S. newspapers: the ones which come out every day, are called dailies.USA Today is the only national (anywhere in the country) daily, some other examples areThe Washington Post,New York Times andThe Wall Street Journal (in large cities). Regionals are newspapers, which come out only in certain regions, for exampleSalt Lake Tribune and alsoThe New York (orWashington)Times. British newpapers: they can be divided into broadsheets and tabloids. Broadsheets (also called quality papers) contain important and serious news, the examples areThe Times,The Guardian,The Observer. Tabloids (also called popular papers) are full of stories about famous people, gossip, they have usually large headlines and many colours (The Mail,The Sun,The Daily Mirror). There are various types of magazines, some come out weekly, some bi-weekly, some monthly. We can read about different topics, like fashion, hobbies, cars, nature, animals, people, or science and education (these are called journals). Radio Since the invention of radio wawes, there have been radio stations. Some are only regional, some are national or even international. To listen to the radio, we need only a receiver (we should pay a fee for it) and to know the frequency – number at which the station broadcasts. There are various types of stations with various programming (type of news or music played). Somebody likes listening to news and sport, somebody prefers music – and can choose his favourite kind. Radio has also an important role in our safety, because by public service announcement we can get emergency information about the traffic or weather. Television The television combines both picture and sound. It is used for showing different types of programs, it depends on the TV station. There are stations which broadcast general information – it contains news, political debates, documentaries, movies, shows, competitions, entertainment, sport and also some programs only for the adults. Of course, advertisement is everywhere now. The other stations are specialized in only some topics, many of them are international. The benefit of TV is that we get a realistic picture of an event very easily, for many people it is also a means of entertainment. However, compared with the newspaper, where you can choose what to read and what not, on TV you don’t have this choice. Watching TV could be also harmful – children behave violently after they watch an action movie, and some people (especially women who watch American soap operas) became unable to live in the real life, because they love the fiction too much. Naturally, TV makes addiction, and it is bad for a person, when he/she only watches instead of producing own activity, for example sport. Moreover, it is not good for the eyes. The TV has a strong power which can be misused – it can create false expectations about the life, political parties may get people who favour them. Actually, also this is part and parcel of television. Internet The most modern type of mass media is called the Internet. It is a system of computers connected with eachother, where can you find whatever are you looking for. At any time anywhere in the world. There is an uncountable amount of pages of various types. You need a computer and a connection to the Internet. People use the Internet for sending e-mails, discussing topics, finding information, reading Internet news, buying and selling products, or for entertainment. Today, many companies are connected to it to get customers, to advertise, or just to keep in touch with the others. Me and mass media I am not a person who needs to know everything what is happening in the universe, so I use media less than an average person. I never buy newspaper, because I don’t find it interesting enough and there is usually a newspaper at home, anyway. Sometimes I buy a magazine – a specialized one, I am interested in railway and there are many railway magazines, some are even delivered into my post box. I listen to radio only because of music, I find radio news and sport commentaries rather unattractive. Sometimes I have to listen to a news station when travelling by car with my father, which is unbearable. I don’t like TV much, I thing I could do more interesting and creative activities, but I have a number of favourite movies and TV competitions, so I watch it about three times a week. The media I use the most is the Internet. Almost every evening I connect my computer to it and send e-mails, look for information (especially now before maturita) or just explore new places and look at interesting pages. I also send some photographs on Internet galleries, so we can say that I contribute to th