17. System of education in GB and USA
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17. System of Education in GB and USA state: US UK education is equal in England and Wales the great majority of schools in Britain arestate schools education and equipment are freesupported by public fundsmajority of children goes there (92%) there are alsoprivate schools, have to pay tuition fee usually boarding (school terms starts in September and students have some holiday during the year)independent schoolsthe minority schools in Britain and another type of schools arepublic schools, they are for upper class and they are prestigious Eton, Harrow, Winchesterco-educational (girls and boys are studying together) – Etonthere is waiting list before child is bored for these schoolsold-boys network (before social network existed this was something like that, connection between boys from same school)school for people with old money(heritage and name) education in UK starts withnursery school age (from very young age, preparing for primary school)primary schoolfor children from 5 to 11students learn thethree R’s(writing, reading, numeracy)RE (religion education)HE (health education – healthy lifestyle, diseases)PE (physical education)from 2010 students have to learn one foreign language usually French, Spanish or Germansecondary schoolfor young people between the age of 11 and 16 (in some are there aremiddle schools age 9-13)several types (most of pupils attend comprehensive ones)secondary school is big change for students (primary schools are usually small just for local children while secondary schools are bigger, students are put into a tutor groups with tutor – a person who is in the charge of group)in the most schools are pupils have possibility to eat lunch in school cafeteriapunishmentsdetention (when you study instead of playing around),suspension (you are not allowed to go to school for week or two – can’t make notes, have bad grades after), the worst isexpulsion (you are dropped out of school)corporal punishment is prohibited as well as in Czech Republicmost of primary and secondary schools require uniforms (equality between pupils, the social spirit) but after they pass their GCSE exams they can wear whatever they wantat the age of 16 students takeprincipal examination (GCSE –General Certificate of Secondary Education)GCSE is composed of 8-10 subjects (math, English are science compulsory…the rest depends on school and your choiceat age of 18 they takeA-level exam (Advance level) it’s standard examination for entrance to higher educationeveryone has to study until 18 (but if you are not studying type and you want to go to work you can choose different subjects)preparing for A-level (sixth form – 2 years)if you don’t want to study straight after you’re A-levels you takegap year (is very usual in UK and USA students work or travel)higher educationBritain has 47 universitiesthe most famous and the oldest ones are Oxford, Cambridge (12th and 13th century)Glasgow, Aberdeen, Edinburg (Scottish)courses last usually over 3 to 4 yearsstudents have to pay for courses, food and accommodationthey receive the loans and they have to pay back when they start to workusually lives in dormsschools that provide you food and bed are called boarding schools (Eaton, Harrow)campus is the whole are of universityyou can get scholarshipundergraduates are the students who are study for degree ofBachelor (after they can study Master – must work thesis)further educationfor people over 26these are courses normally taught at colleges of further educationmost of them are vocational (technical, commercial)many students attend schools in the evening USA 1. THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN THE USA Pre-school Is a program from children below the age of 5. Also known as nursery school. Attendance for children isn’t compulsory. It offers early education before children begin elementary school. The main goal is to focus on building a child's social, physical, emotional and cognitive development. Elementary school – Kindergarten It is the first year of elementary school for children from the age 5 to 6. Children do activities like simple mathematics (addition, subtraction) or play on the playground. “The first grade of elementary school” Elementary school/education Is for children between 5 or 6 and 11. Children can go to private or public school. It is focusing on fundamental academic learning and skills and preparing children for secondary school. Students are being introduced to foreign languages. They often change class for special activities like arts or crafts. They usually have the same teacher for the entire school year. Secondary school - Middle school Or junior high school, is for students from age of 11 to 14. Students take classes from several teachers in a day. They have subjects as English, foreign language, science or mathematics. When they successfully complete middle school, they can entry into high school. Preparation for high schools. Secondary school - High school High school lasts from 14th year of age to 18th year of age. High schools are often larger. Students can choose optional subjects which supplements their future education and career. High schools offer a wide range of subjects from which students can choose a program leading to university entrance or a career in business. Students receive counselling as they begin to plan their careers and further education. Students must have certain score in grade point averages (GPA) to get into universities. That is why some students are taking advanced placement courses (AP). Sport is very important part of high school, especially in the USA. Team sports have a high profile and excellent athletes can get a scholarship to university. There are also many school sponsored activities like drama clubs, school choir or other clubs. After a student successfully complete 12th grade, he graduates and receives a high school diploma. There are ceremonies to celebrate graduation with caps, diplomas, and speeches by staff and students. These ceremonies mark a new start